ADDICTION HOTLINE

15 MIN READ CLINICALLY REVIEWED BY Evan Leonard

SpringBoard Recovery is a professional drug and alcohol rehab center.

Our addiction hotline operators are standing by.

SpringBoard’s staff is trained to handle urgent phone calls and determine the best course of action for addiction treatment.

Our drug and alcohol addiction hotline is a toll-free, private, 100% confidential, and secure number for people struggling with addiction.

At Springboard Recovery, we have years of full accreditation from the Joint Commission. They expect the highest standards for addiction treatment. We always look for ways to improve patient care.

We accept most major health insurance coverage. Clients travel from all over the U.S. to receive personalized treatment with us.

Hotline Is Free, Confidential, Anonymous

People who struggle with substance use disorder (SUD) may not know how to find help. Hotlines can be a lifeline for some callers. The person who answers the call can help the addict in many ways.

Anyone can call our addiction helpline number. The call is private, and the person does not have to give a name. It does not have to be the person who has the addiction.

What is a Drug & Alcohol Addiction Hotline?

A drug and alcohol hotline is a toll-free phone number people can call if they need help with a drug or alcohol addiction. Hotlines are not for those who have an addiction. If there is a friend or family member with concern for a loved one, they can call the hotline, too.

When an addict calls an addiction hotline, they will talk to a trained staff member. This person will discuss some of the following:

  • Their current situation
  • Concerns they have about their substance use.
  • Concerns about their physical, emotional, and mental health.
  • Various treatment options are available to them. This can include types of programs and what could be best for them.
  • Other relevant information about their substance use.

The professional, fully-trained staff can provide information for loved ones, too. They can help with:

  • Treatment options
  • How to help a loved one
  • Residential facilities
  • Outpatient clinics
  • Choosing a treatment center
  • Substance Use Prevention
Photo of a group of young people outdoor

Interested and Insured?

Most insurance will cover some or all addiction treatment. Payment options to cover the remaining are available. These can include:

  • Financing
  • Loans
  • Sliding scales

Call us if you want to know more about treatment addiction treatment. It is helpful to have your insurance information ready when you call. The addiction treatment programs may ask about your insurance coverage.

Calling an addiction hotline can be very intimidating and emotional, especially for the addict.

For First-Time Callers

Our professional hotline responders understand how hard it is for someone to call. They may be addressing their addiction for the first time. They know the amount of courage it takes for the person to make that call. This is a big step toward addiction recovery.

Our staff is well-equipped to handle all the emotions the person will deal with. The addict usually will not know what to expect when they call. They may be desperate, afraid, or angry. The responder can help them calm down and figure out what happens next. They want the caller to feel comfortable. 

Our goal is to show how helpful addiction hotlines are. They are not scary and responders are not judgemental. If you struggle with addiction, you can call an addiction hotline anytime.

Different Types of Substance Addiction Hotlines & Helplines

There are three different types of addiction hotlines currently used in the U.S. Those are the following:

Outsourced Addiction Hotlines

Many times, a drug treatment rehab will outsource their hotline. They will hire specialized companies to take these calls on behalf of their facility. These responders are trained and often direct callers to the facility. These are often nationwide.

When they receive a call, they will direct the caller to the contracted facility first. This may not always be the best fit for the person who needs help.

In-House Addiction Hotlines

Private addiction treatment centers often have their own hotlines. These are in-house with professional, trained staff. This is often the best option for someone who wants to choose their rehab center. SpringBoard Recovery operates an in-house addiction hotline.

Government/Charity-Funded Helplines

Some hotlines are run by the state or federal government. These offer state-wide or nationwide help. An example of this is the National Institue on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Many charitable organizations also have addiction hotlines. One example is Covenant House. This is a New York based nonprofit organization that provides care for homeless, trafficked and at-risk youth.

  • Outsourced Addiction Hotlines

    For business reasons, many addiction treatment providers and drug rehabs simply outsource their hotlines to specialized companies to handle these calls on their behalf.Usually, run on a nationwide basis, the outsourced hotline responders (normally a trained professional) will direct callers straight to an addiction treatment facility.However, the facility you will be referred to will usually be one who they are contracted with, so they can receive their commission. In other words, you may not be directed to the most appropriate for your situation, eg. the closest or the most highly rated facility that offers the treatment you need.

  • In-house Addiction Hotlines

There are many private addiction treatment providers and facilities – SpringBoard Recovery included – who run their addiction hotlines – in-house, where they can train or hire their professional staff.

Drug and alcohol addiction in the U.S. In 2019, among those with a SUD, 7.4 million struggled with illicit drugs, 14.1 million struggled with alcohol use, 2.2 million struggled with both illicit drugs and alcohol and 9.5 million with a SUD also suffered from a mental health disorder. This is know medically as a co occurring disorder or dual diagnosis
  •  

This is the best option for those who want to contact the drug and alcohol rehab of their choice.

  • Government / Charity-Funded Helplines

    Furthermore, there are those national and state addiction hotlines and helplines run by federal and state governments, eg. the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).Additionally, there are several hotlines run by major charitable foundations, eg. Covenant House [see Free Resources section for more details], a New York-based nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization providing vital care for the homeless, trafficked, and at-risk youth in the U.S.NOTE: You can find more free resources for substance addiction hotlines further along in this article.

Addiction Hotlines: Privacy & Confidentiality

Hotline callers can call knowing their information is kept private and confidential. Knowing this could help someone choose to reach out.

These records are kept as confidential as medical and mental health records. This is a protected right.

HIPAA Laws of Privacy

HIPAA Laws of Privacy

In the U.S., The Privacy Rule protects citizens’ right to privacy. This is a Federal law under HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act). There are rules and regulations about who can see personal health information. This applies to all types of health information – oral, written, and electronic.

The Security Rule is another Federal law. The goal is to protect a person’s security of electronic Protected Health Information (ePHI). This law helps make sure ePHI records stay confidential. This remains even though they are made available to others.

HIPAA put both of these laws into place in 1996. Along with those, they also added the Breach Notification Rule. SpringBoard Recovery‘s addiction hotline is in full compliance with all HIPAA regulations.

Why Should I Call a Drug and Alcohol Addiction Hotline?

People who use drugs do not always know they are an addict. They may be a regular user but function normally most of the time. It may take a loved one pointing out their patterns before they start to see the truth. Sometimes, a person just gets tired of being in the same cycle of substance use, day after day.

Any calls made to SpringBoard Recovery’s addiction hotline are fully compliant with HIPAA standards in both confidentiality and security.

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Drug and alcohol addiction in the U.S. In 2019, among those with a SUD, 7.4 million struggled with illicit drugs, 14.1 million struggled with alcohol use, 2.2 million struggled with both illicit drugs and alcohol and 9.5 million with a SUD also suffered from a mental health disorder. This is know medically as a co occurring disorder or dual diagnosis

Substance Use Disorder (SUD): What You Should Know

When dealing with a substance abuse disorder, it helps to know more about it. Every substance-drugs and alcohol gave an effect on the brain. They change the chemistry in the brain to create the high that people like. The initial reason for taking the substance could be anything: pain, recreational use, peer pressure… But, that high is what becomes addictive.

The cycle is use, abuse, and addiction. Not everyone who uses abuses. And, not everyone who abuses becomes addicted. However, when a person reaches the point of addiction, this is when the cycle is the hardest to break. At this point, substance use is chronic and powerful. The drug the person has control over their choices when it comes to using. Addiction to many substances will need professional treatment for someone to overcome.

This is why it can be so important to take the first step and call an addiction hotline.

Substance Use Disorder (SUD): The Main Points

Substance use disorder is a chronic disease. It is characterized by drug-seeking behaviors. These are often compulsive and difficult to control, despite harmful consequences.

A person who uses a substance over time will experience changes in their brain. Many drugs have an effect on the brain’s reward system. They flood the brain with dopamine, a chemical messenger. When there is a surge of dopamine, this reinforces pleasurable activities, even if they are unhealthy. This leads to repeated patterns of drug or alcohol usage.

When the brain changes enough, the person will start to lose self-control. This takes away their ability to resist the drugs, even if they want to resist.

Eventually, the person’s brain will adjust quicker and quicker to the excess dopamine. This reduces the high that they feel. They may always “chase” the first high they had, never getting it. Their brain is building tolerance to the drug. Tolerance leads to an increase in quantity and frequency of usage.

Unfortunately, drug/alcohol addiction has a high relapse rate. Relapse is when someone sober for some time returns to using the drug. When attending drug treatment, the brain needs time to heal to get back to “normal”.

Addiction cannot be predicted. It does not discriminate. All races, genders, social classes, ages, religions, and nationalities see addiction. There can be a genetic, environmental, and/or developmental component. Those alone do not determine if someone will become an addict.

Drug addiction is treatable. Many people have a successful recovery after going through treatment. It is also preventable. Talking to a loved one about a possible usage problem may be difficult, but it may also be vital for them. Continuing education plays a big role, too.

Addiction Hotlines: Commonly Asked Questions

Knowing what to expect can make a call to a hotline a little easier. There are a variety of questions a person might have about the hotline. There are also questions the hotline responder might ask the person calling.

When someone calls, they need to be completely honest. The responder needs to collect a lot of vital information. This helps them refer the person to the right place. These calls are 100% confidential, so there should be no fear of their business getting out.

When the hotline responder gathers the information, they can see the bigger picture. At this point, they will have an idea of how to continue with the person’s treatment referral.

Questions Commonly Asked by Addiction Hotline Responders

  1. “Are you in immediate danger or in an emergency situation?”

This question helps establish the safety of the caller. This is usually the first question that is asked. If the caller is in danger, the responder will tell them to call 911 or another emergency number.

After they know the person is safe, the responder will ask why they called the addiction hotline. This will help the caller to relax. The responder wants the person to feel at ease talking to them.

  1. “What substance or substances are you addicted to or struggling with?”

The person who answers the call needs to know what substances the caller has been using. They need to know what they believe they have an addiction to. The caller needs to be clear and honest about ALL substances.

This information helps determine a course of action. Different addictions have different treatments. Some addictions need detox before a treatment program.

  1. “How often do you use this substance?”

This is an important piece of information, too. The frequency of drug use is how often the caller uses the substance to get high or through their day. This can help determine how serious their addiction is.

Depending on this answer, the hotline responder can recommend treatment. This is not the only factor, but it is a necessary one.

There can be a lot of variety in frequency. Some are recreational users. This means they use the substance on occasion or with certain friends. Others use it casually, with no pattern. Others are daily users, feeling like they cannot get through their day without it.

Any of these people can be an addict if they find it difficult to stop using the drug and feel like they need it.

  1. “How long have you been using this substance?”

Hotline staff will ask the caller how long they have been using the drug. The history of drug use is important. Generally, people who have a long history of usage need a higher level of treatment.

It is important to report the history of every substance used, even if it is not currently used. Someone with a cocaine addiction may have started abusing alcohol or marijuana first.

Someone who has not been using drugs for long may not have SUD. They may still need treatment if they find it hard to stop using the substance. This is where individual therapy would help as well as 12-step support meetings.

  1. “Do you have any physical or mental health issues you are aware of?”

Addiction always has a root cause. It is often a physical or mental health issue that causes a person to begin using. They find something that makes them feel better, even for a short time. They self-medicate but the root cause is not dealt with.

Some examples of a root cause of substance use could be:

  • Physical pain could lead to misusing prescription painkillers (opioids). This can often lead to heroin use.
  • Social anxiety could cause someone to drink alcohol because it can help them feel calmer.
  • Depression could cause someone to use hallucinogenic drugs, such as mushrooms.
  • Undiagnosed ADHD is often the reason someone starts to use stimulants.
  • Peer pressure could cause a young person to start using inhalants.
  • According to NIDA, about 50% of people who go to drug and alcohol rehab also deal with mental health issues.

This is called a co-occurring disorder or a dual diagnosis. When this is present, the person must get treatment for both the addiction and the mental health issue.

Sometimes an individual is unaware of their co-occurring disorder. If this is discovered in therapy, they will start receiving dual diagnosis treatment.

  1. “Have you ever sought help for your problem with this substance before?”

For many addiction hotline callers, this is their first time reaching out for help. They have not been to any kind of treatment program before and are not sure where to turn.

Sometimes, a caller knows exactly what to expect. They have called a hotline or been through treatment several times. They weren’t successful. This call is coming during a relapse period.

According to NIDA, the addiction treatment relapse rate is 40-60%. This is similar to other chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension.

Hotline responders will ask about any other rehab programs the caller has attended in the past. They want to know the complete history of treatment.

  1. “Are you ready to go to a drug and alcohol rehab facility to get the professional help you need?”

This is a very important question for the responder to ask. They need to know if the caller (or the loved one) is ready to seek help at an alcohol and drug rehab. Many times, the answer is yes.

With this answer, the responder can give them a referral for treatment. They will also give any other necessary information to help them get started.

Sometimes, the answer to this question is no. If someone is calling or a loved one, this can be the case. At this point, the responder can offer suggestions to help. They may help the caller know how to discuss substance use or how to encourage treatment.

 

Are There Other Ways of Contacting an Addiction Hotline?

Many addiction hotlines are simply a free-to-call number in the U.S., with a few also offering other ways to contact the support you need, such as texting.

However, nowadays, most professional drug and alcohol rehabs who run an addiction hotline also use “Chat” features that are enabled on their rehab’s website.

Either option is good if you don’t want to physically speak to someone. However, eventually, it will still be necessary to speak on the phone or visit a drug rehab.

No need for anyone to be nervous about calling an addiction hotline. The call is 100% confidential, and the responders who answer the phones are highly trained professionals.

These people know how to answer any questions the caller might have and can direct them to a place where they can get the help they need.

Is There a Risk of Being Arrested If Someone Calls an Addiction Hotline?

Unfortunately, many people are afraid to call addiction hotlines for help because they are worried about the legal consequences of their drug use.

Often, they are concerned that calling and admitting to drug abuse will automatically trigger a call to the police, and they might get arrested at some point in the future.

Please, rest assured that is certainly not going to happen.

The sole purpose of addiction hotlines is to help the caller get the right assistance for their substance abuse problem. It is not to inform the police.

All calls are always handled without any judgment of any kind whatsoever and without notifying any authorities – the only exception being if the caller is in imminent medical danger.

We are here only to help you recover.

Are you in immediate danger or an emergency?

Usually, the first question asked when someone calls an addiction hotline is simply to ensure the caller is safe and not in harm’s way and that they didn’t call when they should be calling 911 or another emergency number.

Once the hotline responder is sure that the caller is safe, they’ll want to know how things are going and what prompted the call.

This is designed to relax the caller and get them talking, as many callers will be hesitant to speak initially.

What substance or substances are you addicted to or struggling with?

It is important for addiction hotline staff to know exactly what substances the caller is using or believes they are addicted to. Is it alcohol? Is it drugs? If it’s drugs, which ones?

This information helps with the next stages of the call.

During drug and alcohol rehab, different SUDs can be treated in a similar way, but certain substances do require specific additional treatment or therapy; for example, if someone has an opioid use disorder (OUD), they will likely need medically assisted treatment (MAT).

Callers need to make sure they disclose all of the substances they or their loved ones are using. It is vital for addiction hotline staff to have all the necessary information before they can make any decisions regarding assistance or treatment.

How often do you use this substance?

It is important for addiction hotline staff to know the frequency of the drug use – how often a person uses substances to get high or to get through the day.

This can help determine how serious the person’s use or addiction is.

In turn, they can then make a professional recommendation about the level of treatment that will be needed for the person to successfully recover.

The frequency of use can vary greatly.

For some, it’s just for recreational purposes, and for others, it’s now become a daily way of coping.

Others may only use sporadically, but they still find it difficult to stop their drug use alone.

How long have you been using this substance?

Addiction hotline staff will also need to know how long the substance user has been taking drugs or drinking alcohol.

With that in mind, it is helpful to give as much historical information as possible.

For example, if a person is now addicted to cocaine but they started abusing substances by excessive alcohol use and smoking marijuana, it is important to inform the hotline responder of this.

As a general rule, people who have been suffering from SUD for a longer period often need a higher level of care.

When someone is relatively new to substance use, it is possible that they may not be suffering from SUD at this point.

However, they may still require professional help to stop their substance use, but they may not have progressed to the point of needing more intensive treatment.

In situations like these, regular counseling/therapy sessions, with the addition of 12-Step meetings, might give them all the support they need.

Do you have any physical or mental health issues you are aware of?

Addiction hotline staff will ask about any physical or mental health issues the caller may be struggling with.

As with most problems, an addiction typically has a root cause – this could be pain management, depression, or some form of previous trauma in their lives.

Substance use has become their form of “self-medication” for the root issue they are constantly dealing with.

Here are some common examples of a “root cause” or catalyst for substance use:

  • A person constantly misusing prescription painkillers or heroin may be doing it to help ease their physical pain.
  • A person who has become an alcoholic may be trying to self-medicate their social anxiety symptoms.
  • People who abuse hallucinogenic drugs, such as mushrooms, might be doing it because it makes them feel less depressed.
  • A person who is abusing stimulants may have undiagnosed and untreated ADHD.
  • A young person who has become addicted to inhalants may have started using them because of peer pressure from friends – however, before long, they found they could not stop.

The NIDA stated that around 50% of people who go to drug and alcohol rehab also deal with mental health issues.

Infographic about NIDA statistic

Medically termed co-occurring disorder or dual diagnosis, it is critical that any future addiction treatment is modified to include treatment for the mental health issue.

It is highly possible for people with co-occurring disorders to be completely unaware of their situation. However, these individuals need addiction treatment that includes dual diagnosis treatment, which is designed to resolve both simultaneous issues.

Have you ever sought help for your problem with this substance before?

Many callers to addiction hotlines are calling for the very first time – they have never been to rehab before, and they may never even have reached out to anyone for help before.

However, some callers have literally “been there, done that,” and, unfortunately, the drug rehab they attended wasn’t successful for them.

It is a fact that some people relapse after leaving drug rehab. It may be a week, a month, a year, or even further down the line.

The NIDA has reported that the relapse rate for addiction treatment is between 40-60%, which is very similar to other chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension.

Infographic about relapse rate for addiction treatment

Addiction hotline staff will ask about any other drug and alcohol rehab programs the caller has worked with in the past and ask for details about the type of treatment they received.

For instance, a person who has gone through an outpatient treatment program (OP), but sadly relapsed will normally require something more intensive, such as an inpatient (residential) treatment program (IP), to help them be successful.

Are you ready to go to a drug and alcohol rehab facility to get the professional help you need?

One of the final questions most addiction hotlines will ask is whether the caller (or their loved one) is ready to seek help at an alcohol and drug rehab. Oftentimes, the answer to this question is “Yes.”

At that point, the hotline responder will usually provide them with a referral and any other additional information they might need about how to get started.

However, there are times when the answer is “No,” – especially if the caller is not the substance user but they are calling for a loved one.

If that is the case, the responder may offer additional suggestions that can help, such as how best to discuss the drug or alcohol use with the user and how they can best encourage the user to take action for the problem.

Furthermore, there are more drug and alcohol addiction and substance use-related hotlines available on a state-by-state basis.

For example, many state government websites will also provide local drug and alcohol resources to those in need.

To find your state government’s website, search for your state name and ‘.gov’. Once your state website is located, substance use resources shouldn’t be hard to find and should provide further phone contacts for assistance.

Springboard Recovery

Are There Other Ways of Contacting an Addiction Hotline?

Many addiction hotlines are free calls in the U.S. some offer other ways to contact the support you need, such as texting. Many rehab treatment centers also have a chat feature available on their website.

Texting and chatting are both good options. These work well for those who are anxious about speaking to someone in person at first. Eventually, a conversation will be necessary, either on the phone or in person.

It is understandable why a caller would be nervous about calling an addiction hotline. They should remember that the call is confidential and private. Responders are well-trained in dealing with the situations they face. They can direct them to the help they need.

Is There a Risk of Being Arrested If Someone Calls an Addiction Hotline?

Some people fear legal consequences if they call an addiction hotline. They may think their drug use will cause the hotline responder to call the authorities. Or their admission to using drugs sets off an automatic trigger connected to the police.

This will not happen.

The purpose of addiction hotlines is to help a caller get help. If someone has a substance abuse problem and is reaching out for help, they need someone they can trust.

Hotline responders are non-judgemental of the callers. They are not there to get anyone in trouble. The only time they will call authorities is if a caller is in imminent medical danger.

Free Drug & Alcohol Addiction Hotline Resources

The following are national addiction and substance use-related hotlines. These are free, valuable resources. These are for anyone who is experiencing issues with:

  • A drug or alcohol use problem
  • A mental health issue
  • Those seeking addiction advice or treatment.

IMPORTANT: If you suspect someone is experiencing a drug overdose, call 911 immediately!

National Drug & Alcohol Addiction Hotlines (and Related Helplines)

Organization

Phone Number

Hours

Services Offered

National Poison Control Center

800-222-1222

24/7

Free, expert, and confidential service for advice from a poison control professional (including cases involving drugs and/or alcohol).

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

800-662-HELP (4357)

24/7

Free referral and information service for those dealing with mental health disorders and/or substance use disorders (SUDs).

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

800-273-TALK

(8255)

24/7

Free, confidential helpline to speak to suicide prevention professionals.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

800-662-HELP (4357)

24/7

Free, confidential service for help in finding local drug treatment centers.

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD)

800-NCA-CALL

(622-2255)

24/7

NCADD’s HOPE LINE directs callers to numerous affiliate programs around the country to assist, at a local level, with substance use issues.

Partnership to End Addiction

855-DRUG-

FREE

(378 4373)

Office Hours

While not a crisis line, this hotline provides information to parents about adolescent and teen drug use, prevention, and treatment.

National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)

800-950-NAMI (6264)

Office Hours

Helpline to answer questions, offer support and provide practical next steps for those with mental illness.

Covenant House Teen Hotline (NineLine)

800-999-9999

1 pm-5 pm

Free, confidential, and bilingual crisis hotline for youth and parents (shelter, referrals, information, crisis intervention, and health clinics) offers referrals throughout the U.S.

National Runaway Safeline

800-RUNAWAY

(786-2929)

24/7

Free crisis line for runaway teens (including those with mental health disorders and/or substance use disorders (SUDs).

Crisis Text Line

Text HOME to

741741

(TEXT ONLY)

24/7

Crisis text line offering advice and referrals for anyone who feels that

they’re experiencing a crisis, including drug and alcohol dependency, suicidal impulses, family problems, and other personal difficulties

State Resources

There are several addiction hotline resources available at the state level.

Most state government websites will give local resources to those who need them.

To find your state’s website, do a web search. Type in your state name followed by ‘.gov‘. On the site, you should be able to search for the resources needed or find a phone number of someone who can further assist you.

Arizona: Free Drug and Alcohol Addiction Hotline Resources

Organization

Phone Number

Hours

Services Offered

Division of Behavioral Health Services: Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS)

602-364-4558, or toll-free

800-867-5808

M-F

8-5

Provides assistance and free drug counseling to residents needing help for substance abuse.

Arizona Drug Addiction Helpline

888-576-4147

24/7

Free substance abuse hotline is available to Arizona residents providing access to professionals who provide treatment advice and counseling services.

AZ 2-11

2-11

24/7

Resource for referrals and information on community health and human services in Arizona, connecting individuals with drug and alcohol addiction to available treatment services.

SpringBoard Recovery: Here to Help

  • Do you have an issue with drugs or alcohol and have concerns about your health?
  • Are you suffering from drug addiction or alcoholism, and you believe you are ready to do something proactive about it?
  • Or do you know someone who does?

At SpringBoard Recovery, we operate an addiction hotline that is ready and waiting for 24/7 to receive your call.

Please contact us right away to get started on your recovery journey.

External Sources:

  • National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Understanding Drug Use & Addiction. June 2018. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Home page. 2021. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
  • U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Your Rights Under HIPAA. November 2020. Available at HHS.gov.
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. September 2018. Available at CDC.gov.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2019 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). 2020. Available at SAMHSA.gov.
  • U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts: December 2019 to December 2020. Available at CDC.gov.
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism. Understanding Alcohol Use Disorder. April 2021. Available at NIAAA.NIH.gov.
  • American Psychiatric Association (APA). “The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.” 2021. Available at Books.Google.com.
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Commonly Used Drugs Charts. August 2020. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Comorbidity: Substance Use & Other Mental Disorders. June 2018. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
  • Poison Control: National Capital Poison Center. Home page. 2021. Available at Poison.org.
  • National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. Home page. 2021. Available at SuicidePreventionLifeline.org.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Home page. 2021. Available at SAMHSA.gov.
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Home page. 2021. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
  • National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD).  Home page. 2021. Available at NCADD.org.
  • Partnership to End Addiction. Home page. 2021. Available at DrugFree.org.
  • National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). NAMI Helpline. 2021. Available at NAMI.org.
  • Covenant House Teen Hotline (NineLine). Home page. 2021. Available at CovenantHouse.org.
  • National Runaway Safeline. Home page. 2021. Available at 1800runaway.org.
  • Crisis Text Line. Home page. 2021. Available at CrisisTextLine.org.
  • Arizona Department of Health Services. Contact Information. 2021. Available at DCS.AZ.gov.
  • Arizona Drug Addiction Helpline. Home page. 2021. Available at ArizonaDrugAddictionHelpline.com.

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