Editorial Team

SpringBoard Recovery was born from the passion and personal experience of its founders. We understand the real-world challenges of early recovery and are here to help and we are passionate about helping our clients lead balanced, healthy, and fulfilling lives.

Photo of a seated old guy holding a glass with alcohol

SpringBoard Recovery is a professional drug and alcohol rehab center located in Scottsdale, Arizona (near Phoenix), with many years of full accreditation from the Joint Commission.

This accreditation means we comply with the highest national standards for addiction treatment, and are committed to continually improving patient care.

We successfully treat a range of drug and alcohol addictions, we accept most major health insurance coverage, and clients travel from all over the U.S. to receive their personalized treatment with us.

The “12 Step Recovery Program” was devised by the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) to provide a sense of structure and mutual support in the lives of recovering addicts who participated in their completely anonymous program of fellowship.

Furthermore, the AA’s 12 Steps provided a way for these people to measure the progress in their own personal journey of recovery from alcoholism.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the world’s most widely available and most widely used mutual-help program. It has helped countless millions of alcoholics find a sustained recovery from their illness throughout its 85-year history.

The 12 Steps & SpringBoard Recovery

As part of our holistic approach to addiction treatment, SpringBoard Recovery uses Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF), where clients are encouraged and motivated to actively participate in and engage with the 12 Step recovery program – a recognized and proven principle of effective addiction treatment.

Here, we explain everything you need to know about:

  • The 12 Step Recovery Program
  • What each of the 12 Steps actually means,
  • How SpringBoard Recovery uses Twelve-Step Facilitation to fully integrate the Steps into its treatment programs, and
  • How, after years of argument and debate by medical clinicians and addiction experts, we can finally rely on real evidentiary proof to answer the question: Does the 12-Step Recovery Program really work?

What are the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous?

The original 12 Steps are defined as “a group of principles, spiritual in their nature, which, if practiced as a way of life, can expel the obsession to drink, and enable the sufferer to become happily and usefully whole.”

Photo of a group of people seated

The aim of these steps is to assist people suffering from alcohol abuse and alcoholism by providing individual action steps.

The 12 Steps were devised by the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous – Bill W. and Dr. Bob S., back in 1935 in Akron, Ohio, and later published in the organization’s fabled “Big Book,” entitled Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism.”

You can find the 12 Steps (outlined in Chapter 5:”How It Works” of the Big Book) provided below:

In drug and alcohol addiction programs where the 12 Steps form the basis of the treatment, recovery is based on discussing the effects of the addiction – the physical, mental, and emotional impacts – and then responding, like the original Steps, with specific actions.

All 12 Step-based professional treatment programs adopt two core principles of AA:

The Group Setting

The 12 steps of recovery are discussed and applied in a recovery support group. Above all, every member of the group honestly admits to the problem they are recovering from.

The Sponsorship System

The Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous

  1. We admitted we were powerless over alcohol - that our lives had become unmanageable.
  1. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity.
  1. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care and direction of God as we understood Him.
  1. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves.
  1. Admitted to God, to ourselves, and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs.
  1. Were entirely willing that God removes all these defects of character.
  1. Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings.
  1. Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all.
  1. Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others.
  1. Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it.
  1. Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out.
  1. Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics, and to practice these principles in all our affairs.

A “Sponsor” is an experienced recovering addict, with several years of continuous sobriety, who guides new members of the group, in the same way as a mentor. According to the 12 Step recovery program of Narcotics Anonymous, “A sponsor is simply another addict in recovery who is willing to share his or her journey through the Twelve Steps.”

Many other group support-based programs have been started using the “blueprint” of the original AA program, and many include similar themes, too, such as addiction, compulsion, and depression.

For example, the original 12 Steps, “suggested as a program of recovery” by the Big Book, have become the primary basis for:

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What are the 12 Traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous?

Just as the AA’s 12 Steps are designed for those in the fellowship seeking sobriety, the 12 Traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous are general guidelines for the running of the organization itself and its members.

Specifically, the 12 Traditions provide the direction and the manner in which AA functions as a body worldwide, such as the importance of retaining anonymity, the need to be self-supporting, and its singular and focused message of sobriety.

The History of Alcoholics Anonymous

Alcoholics Anonymous was founded jointly by Bill W. (a New York stockbroker) and Dr. Bob S. (a local medical surgeon) in Akron, Ohio way back to 1935. The concept for the group support organization was the outcome of the very first meeting held between the two.

Both men had been hopeless alcoholics. Additionally, both had been in contact with the Oxford Group, a U.S. fellowship that emphasized universal spiritual values in daily living.

The Twelve Traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous

  1. Our common welfare should come first; personal recovery depends upon AA.
  1. For our group purpose there is but one ultimate authority - a loving God as He may express Himself in our group conscience. Our leaders are but trusted servants; they do not govern.
  1. The only requirement for AA membership is a desire to stop drinking.
  1. Each group should be autonomous except in matters affecting other groups or AA as a whole.
  1. Each group has but one primary purpose - to carry its message to the alcoholic who still suffers.
  1. An AA group ought never endorse, finance, or lend the AA name to any related facility or outside enterprise, lest problems of money, property, and prestige divert us from our primary purpose.
  1. Every AA group ought to be fully self-supporting, declining outside contributions.
  1. Alcoholics Anonymous should remain forever nonprofessional, but our service centers may employ special workers.
  1. AA, as such, ought never be organized; but we may create service boards or committees directly responsible to those they serve.
  1. Alcoholics Anonymous has no opinion on outside issues, hence the AA name ought never be drawn into public controversy.
  1. Our public relations policy is based on attraction rather than promotion; we need always maintain personal anonymity at the level of press, radio and films.
  1. Anonymity is the spiritual foundation of all our Traditions, ever reminding us to place principles before personalities.
Bill W., Alcoholics Anonymous founder said that It must never be forgotten that the purpose of alcoholics anonymous is to sober up alcoholics. There is no religious or spiritual requirement for membership. No demands are made on anyone. An experience is offered which members may accept or reject. That is up to them

Under this spiritual influence and guidance (and with the aid of Ebby T., an old-time friend), Bill W. had found sobriety, and managed to maintain it by helping other alcoholics.

However, Bob S. was still continuing to struggle with his own alcoholism.

The meeting was a revelation for Bob – there he sat face-to-face with a chronic but sober drinker, a man who had achieved what had eluded the surgeon for so long – sobriety.

Bill W. explained his own thoughts on alcoholism, describing it as a medical condition of mind, emotions and body – an important take on the age-old disease he had learned from Dr. William D. Silkworth, at Towns Hospital, New York.

Even though he was a qualified physician, Dr. Bob had never considered this diagnosis.

He actively responded to his new friend Bill’s ideas, and before long, he found his own sobriety. Bob S. never drank again.

From that first successful meeting, the idea behind AA – the world’s largest mutual aid support organization – was born.

The AA’s “Big Book”

The AA publishes the 12 Steps, additional guidance, and personal stories of recovery in the fabled “Big Book,” entitled Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism.”

The Big Book has never been advertised or promoted, there are no author photos, it will never appear in any bestseller list, and the only “public” readings you could possibly hear occur regularly during one of the thousands of AA meetings held every day across the world.

However, it is now freely available to read online, and the 40-millionth physical copy was undoubtedly sold at some point last year in 2020.

F.E.A.R stands for face everything and recover, this is an old alcoholics anonymous (AA) proverb, F.E.A.R also stands for Fuck Everything and Run, this is an alternative meaning to the first mentioned, this meaning also was invented by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

Furthermore, it has received much acclaim for its powerful and inspiring influence in bringing sobriety to alcoholics from all over the world. For example:

  • In 2011, the Big Book was named one of the most influential books written in English by the famous U.S. magazine Time.
  • In 2012, the Library of Congress named it one of 88 books that shaped America.
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Integrating the 12 Steps: Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF)

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy is “an active engagement strategy designed to increase the likelihood of a substance abuser becoming affiliated with and actively involved in 12-step self-help groups, thereby promoting abstinence.”

The therapeutic strategy of TSF encourages and motivates those in addiction recovery to become actively involved in a 12-Step recovery program, and so making it not only a part of a person’s rehab treatment, but a primary part of their post-treatment support.

Additionally, the NIDA classifies TSF as an “evidence-based approach” – along with other more science-based therapies such as Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET).

It is considered by the U.S. National Institutes of Health as one of the principles of effective drug addiction treatment.

Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF): The Concepts

The Twelve-Step Facilitation strategy is founded on 3 core concepts, which are:

  1. Acceptance: The understanding that substance addiction is a chronic, progressive disease over which you have no control.

    Because of your substance addiction:

    • Your life has become unmanageable
    • Your willpower alone is insufficient to overcome it, and
    • Abstinence is the only viable alternative.
  2. Surrender: Comprises giving yourself over to a “higher power,” accepting the fellowship and support of other recovering individuals, and following the recovery activities (the 12 Steps) laid out by the program.
    • Active Involvement: The involvement in both 12-step meetings and related activities (TSF) has been established for AUD for some time.

    It is now widely accepted in helping other drug-addicted individuals.

    As previously mentioned, SpringBoard Recovery uses Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy as a core element of its holistic approach to addiction treatment.

    The History of Twelve-Step Facilitation

    TSF originated from the Minnesota Model of addiction treatment (also known as the “abstinence model”), which was created back in the 1950s.

    The primary objective of the Minnesota Model is engaging patients with AA and other 12-step mutual-help organizations in their local community.

    TSF was first manualized as part of an important randomized trial called “Project MATCH” in the early 1990s.

    “MATCH” stands for “Matching Alcoholism Treatment to Client Heterogeneity”.

    Several of the trial’s studies clearly demonstrated that TSF was as effective or, in some cases, more effective at enhancing abstinence over time than Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), and a cognitive-behavioral approach, eg. using CBT.

    The Central Ethos of Twelve-Step Facilitation

    1. Addiction is a multi-faceted illness influenced by various factors: medical, social, emotional, and spiritual
    1. Consistent with 12-step mutual-help organization philosophy, abstinence is the most vital (though not the only) facet of recovery from substance use disorder; emotional and, in some cases, spiritual growth is also a critical recovery process
    1. AA participation will help patients achieve and sustain recovery over the long-term
    1. Facilitation is effective only insomuch as the provider helps to engage the patient with AA and other 12-step mutual-help organizations
    1. A professional clinical provider can help the patient address practical and attitudinal obstacles to AA attendance

    Substance Addiction in the U.S.

    Picture of a woman lying down holding a glass of alcohol

    If 12 Step Recovery Programs could finally be proven to be an effective and appropriate therapy in their own right, the implementation of their more widespread use across the field of substance addiction could potentially have a huge impact on the massive number of U.S. citizens currently struggling with drug and alcohol issues.

    There is a simple reason why this would be so impactful in treating substance addiction, and that reason is cost.

    This is pivotal because, currently, many people simply cannot afford the necessary treatment for their substance use disorder (SUD).

    Compared to the various costs of drug rehab fees, specialized therapies and treatments, and other factors, such as the huge number of those without healthcare insurance coverage, 12 Step recovery programs are cheap and highly affordable.

    Additionally, they could certainly bring down the overall price of addiction treatment in a significant way.

    U.S. Drug & Alcohol Addiction: Facts & Stats

    According to the latest official findings – 2019 National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH), produced by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and published in September, 2020:

    Substance Use:

    • In 2019, 19.3 million people (aged 18 or older) had a substance use disorder (SUD).
    • Among those with a SUD:
      • 7.4 million struggled with illicit drugs
      • 14.1 million struggled with alcohol use
      • 2.2 million struggled with illicit drugs and alcohol
      • 9.5 million also suffered with a mental illness

    Alcohol:

    • Past month alcohol use and past year alcohol use disorder (AUD) remained stable in all age groups during 2018-2019
    • Alcohol use and AUD declined significantly in young adults from 2016 to 2019
    In 2019, 19.3 million people (aged 18 or older) had a substance use disorder (SUD), 7.4 million struggled with illicit drugs, 14.1 million struggled with alcohol use, 2.2 million struggled with illicit drugs and alcohol, 9.5 million also suffered with a mental illness, however, only 12.2 percent received the treatment they needed

    Opioids:

    • 10.1 million people (aged 12 or older) struggled with opioids
    • Among those who struggled with opioids, 9.7 million misused prescription opioid pain relievers:
      • 5.1 million struggled with prescription hydrocodone
      • 3.2 million struggled with prescription oxycodone
      • 269,000 struggled with prescription fentanyl
    • Additionally, among those who struggled with opioids,
      • 745,000 were heroin users
      • 404,000 struggled with prescription opioid pain relievers and heroin
    • Opioid use disorder (OUD) decreased significantly from 2.0 million to 1.6 million
    • Buprenorphine continues to be the opioid with the highest percentage of users acknowledging misuse of the medication

    Other Illicit Drugs:

    • Past month marijuana use and past year daily or almost daily marijuana use significantly increased in adults aged 26 and older
    • Past year marijuana use disorder (MUD) significantly increased in adolescents
    • Non-significant increase in marijuana use by pregnant women; significant increases in marijuana use by women 15-44
    • Alcohol use trending downward in pregnant women; however, any alcohol use is hazardous in pregnancy
    • No change in cocaine use in all age groups
    • Upward trend in methamphetamine use and significantly increased from 2016-17 in adults 26 and older
    • Prescription stimulant misuse trending downward in those 18-25 years old
    • Past year LSD use significantly increased in adolescents; non-significant increases in LSD use in young adults and adults

    2019 Substance Use Disorder (SUD) Treatment Rates:

    • Out of the millions of people aged 12 or older who were diagnosed with a SUD or a mental illness or both, only 12.2% actually received treatment of any kind.

    It is both important and pertinent to remember that the above facts and statistics are all pre-COVID. However, the following is certainly not…

    U.S. Drug Overdoses: Facts & Stats

    On July 14, 2021, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), part of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), announced that 93,331 people died from a drug overdose in the U.S., from December 2019 to December 2020.

    This was a colossal percentage increase of 29.4% across the nation as a whole.

    One of the features of this statistic were the number of drug fatalities involving opioids, and, in particular, the synthetic opioid fentanyl.

    The Sharp Increase in Poly Drug Use

    Furthermore, the expansive data collected by the NCHS also shows a sharp increase in poly drug use – where two or more drugs have been used in combination with one another.

    Drug users do this to heighten the effects of each of the substances used, which include alcohol, prescriptions drugs, and illicit drugs.

    Does the 12-Step Recovery Program Really Work?

    It has always been generally acknowledged that the 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous does provide a certain amount of real benefit to the percentage of people who actively engage in the program, eg. those who regularly attend meetings and have a sponsor.

    However, in terms of a scientific answer to the question in our title: Does the 12-Step Recovery Program Really Work?, this has never been fully proven or even measured.

    On the Edge of Accepted Addiction Treatment

    Because of this, and particularly during the late 20th century, many clinical scientists and addiction experts began to question and debate the actual effectiveness of Alcoholics Anonymous, including the 12 Steps, in getting people sober, continuing to motivate them, and keeping them abstinent.

    Regardless, mutual aid group support, like that provided by AA meetings, does have its rightful place in the “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition),” published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), which states:

    Participation in group therapy and other peer support programs during and following treatment can help maintain abstinence.”

    Because of the organization’s anonymity and, therefore, the lack of any kind of record keeping or statistics, it has always been inherently difficult to place AA’s position in the field of recognized addiction therapy – if it really had any position at all.

    The four paradoxes of alcoholics anonymous are, We surrender to win, We give away to keep, We suffer to get well, We die to live

    However, at long last, the wait for real scientific confirmation is finally over.

    Thanks to an in-depth analytical study of all existing and qualified research data (all of which was subject to a strict acceptance criteria), and published in 2020, the answer to this question has arrived.

    And the answer is a definitive and resounding “Yes.”

    Measuring the True Effectiveness of 12 Step Programs

    Published only last year, in 2020, the study in question – entitled “Alcoholics Anonymous & Other 12-Step Programs for Alcohol Use Disorder” – was undertaken by the Recovery Research Institute, a leading nonprofit research institute of Massachusetts General Hospital (an affiliate of Harvard Medical School).

    As we mentioned earlier, the AA 12 Step recovery program has always had some respected clinical and addiction experts doubting its true effectiveness.

    As an actual therapy, it has always been right out there on the edge of accepted addiction treatment.

    It was hoped this in-depth research and analytical study by the Recovery Research Institute (which was fully supported by the U.S. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism – NIAAA) could finally provide a definitive answer.

    The study was based upon the clinical results of 27 peer-reviewed studies (which had been previously whittled down by the harsh research criteria), and represented over 10,000 qualified participants.

    Using rigorous analysis, the study compared the AA-based data from the control group data associated with two first-line clinical therapies – Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET).

    Additionally, the research study did not solely look at Alcoholics Anonymous, it also included “Twelve-Step Facilitation” (TSF) therapy, described previously.

    Finally, the study was conducted through the esteemed Cochrane Library’s program of systematic clinical reviews, considered the gold standard in scientific rigor for medical research.

    Effectiveness & Cost of Alcoholics Anonymous: Official Study Results

    In terms of both the effectiveness and the associated costs of AA and TSF, here is a summary of the study’s official findings:

    1. Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) & Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF) produce rates of alcohol abstinence (and subsequent alcohol use) comparable to first-line clinical interventions, and outperforms them over follow-up.
    2. In terms of only alcohol abstinence, among the 27 studies reviewed and involving over 10,000 research participants, AA and TSF generally performed as well as first-line clinical interventions at the end of treatment, and, in the majority of studies, performed better over timed follow-ups (e.g., at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment). For example:
      1. a 21% lower risk of return to alcohol use among those going to AA compared to those receiving other clinical interventions at 12-month follow-up, and
      2. a 66% lower risk of return to alcohol use among those going to AA versus those receiving clinical interventions at 6-month follow-up.
    3. Specifically, in a 3-year follow up study of individuals with severe AUD, it was found that AA participants had alcohol-related outcomes similar to outpatients receiving clinical addiction treatment, yet the alcohol-related health care costs associated with AA participation were 45% lower (with $2,856 saved per person).

    Conclusion

    The study’s authors concluded that active involvement in the AA’s 12-Step program performed as well as first-line clinical interventions at the end of professional treatment for keeping people abstinent from alcohol – and, therefore, sober.

    Furthermore, in the majority of these 27 studies, full participation in AA even performed better over timed follow-ups – specifically at 6, 12, 24, and 36 monthly intervals – after the end of first-line clinical treatment for ensuring sobriety.

    Full and active participation in Alcoholics Anonymous performed better over time than first-line clinical treatments in keeping recovering alcoholics alcohol-free and in active recovery.

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    SpringBoard Recovery: AA & Twelve-Step Facilitation

    Intrinsic to our addiction treatment and care, Twelve-Step Facilitation is actively used throughout our treatment programs here at SpringBoard Recovery.

    All clients that receive care and treatment in these programs are encouraged to:

    • Participate in 12 Step meetings
    • Explore the fellowship and teachings of AA, and
    • Read and study the “Big Book” – AA’s essential, go-to guide of recovery from substance addiction.

    However, in no way is treatment with us dependent upon your acceptance of the 12 Steps.

    Contact us today to find out how we can help you break free from the chains of substance addiction, and begin to look forward to your deserved, substance-free future.

    Frequently Asked Questions: The 12 Steps

    The twelve steps FAQs
    1. What are the 12 Steps and who created them?

      The original 12 Steps are defined as “a group of principles, spiritual in their nature, which, if practiced as a way of life, can expel the obsession to drink, and enable the sufferer to become happily and usefully whole.”

      They were devised by the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) to provide a sense of structure and mutual support in the lives of recovering addicts who participated in their completely anonymous program of fellowship.

    1. What do the 12 Steps say?
      • We admitted we were powerless over alcohol - that our lives had become unmanageable.
      • Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity.
      • Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care and direction of God as we understood Him.
      • Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves.
      • Admitted to God, to ourselves, and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs.
      • Were entirely willing that God removes all these defects of character.
      • Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings.
      • Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all.
      • Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others.
      • Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it.
      • Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out.
      • Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics, and to practice these principles in all our affairs.
    1. What is the “Big Book” of Alcoholics Anonymous?

      The AA publishes the 12 Steps, additional guidance, and personal stories of recovery in the fabled “Big Book,” entitled Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism.”

      It is now freely available to read online, and the 40-millionth physical copy was sold at some point last year in 2020.

    1. What is “Twelve-Step Facilitation” therapy?

      According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy is “an active engagement strategy designed to increase the likelihood of a substance abuser becoming affiliated with and actively involved in 12-step self-help groups, thereby promoting abstinence.”

      The therapeutic strategy of TSF encourages and motivates those in addiction recovery to become actively involved in a 12-Step program, and so making it not only a part of a person’s rehab treatment, but a primary part of their post-treatment support.

    1. Are 12 Step recovery programs considered professional addiction treatment?

      Yes. Again referencing the NIDA, 12 Step recovery programs come under the umbrella of mutual aid group support. As such, it has its rightful place in the “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition),” published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), which states:

      Participation in group therapy and other peer support programs during and following treatment can help maintain abstinence.”

    1. How does the use of Alcoholics Anonymous’ 12 Step recovery program compare with other forms of therapy used in the field of professional addiction treatment?

      In 2020, an in-depth analytical research study entitled “Alcoholics Anonymous & Other 12-Step Programs for Alcohol Use Disorder” was published by the Recovery Research Institute, a leading nonprofit research institute of Massachusetts General Hospital (an affiliate of Harvard Medical School).

      The study found that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) & Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF) produce rates of alcohol abstinence (and subsequent alcohol use) comparable to first-line clinical interventions, such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), and actually outperforms them over scheduled follow-ups.

    1. What if a person with a substance use disorder (SUD) doesn't agree with the clear spiritual aspect of Alcoholics Anonymous?

    External Sources:

    1. Alcoholics Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at AA.org.
    2. National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition) – “Evidence-Based Approaches to Drug Addiction Treatment: 12- Step Facilitation Therapy (Alcohol, Stimulants, Opiates).” January, 2018. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
    3. Alcoholics Anonymous. “Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism” Fourth Edition (The Big Book). 2021. Available at AA.org.
    4. Narcotics Anonymous. “Sponsorship” Revised. 2004. Available at Web.Archive.org.
    5. Narcotics Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at NA.org.
    6. Marijuana Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at Marijuana-Anonymous.org.
    7. Gamblers Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at GamblersAnonymous.org.
    8. Workaholics Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at Workaholics-Anonymous.org.
    9. Sexaholics Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at SA.org.
    10. Families Anonymous. Home page. 2021. Available at FamiliesAnonymous.org.
    11. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Home page. 2021. Available at NIH.gov.
    12. U.S. National Library of Medicine: “The Origins of the Minnesota Model of Addiction Treatment – First-Person Account.” 1999. Available at NLM.NIH.gov
    13. Google Books. “Twelve Step Facilitation Therapy Manual” – National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). 1992. Available at Books.Google.com
    14. U.S. National Library of Medicine: “Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatment to Client Heterogeneity).” December, 1993. Available at NLM.NIH.gov.
    15.  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2019 National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH). September, 2020. Available at SAMHSA.org.
    16. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts: December 2019 to December 2020. Available at CDC.gov.
    17. National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition) – “Evidence-Based Approaches to Drug Addiction Treatment.” January, 2018. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
    18. Cochrane Library. “Alcoholics Anonymous & Other 12-Step Programs for Alcohol Use Disorder” (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD012880). March, 2020. Available at CochraneLibrary.com.
    19. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Home page. 2021. Available at NIAAA.NIH.gov.
    20. Cochrane Library. Cochrane Reviews. 2021. Available at CochraneLibrary.com.
    21. U.S. National Library of Medicine: “Reduced Substance Abuse-related Health Care Costs among Voluntary Participants in Alcoholics Anonymous.” July, 1996. Available at NLM.NIH.gov.
    22. Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART). Home page. 2021. Available at SmartRecovery.org.
    23. LifeRing Secular Recovery. Home page. 2021. Available at LifeRing.org.
    24. Refuge Recovery. Home page. 2021. Available at RefugeRecovery.org.
    25. Women for Sobriety. Home page. 2021. Available at WomenforSobriety.org.

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