SpringBoard Recovery is a professional drug and alcohol rehab center that treats meth addiction. We’ve helped people from all over the country overcome drug addiction and gain control of their lives one day at a time.
We have earned many years of full accreditation from the Joint Commission, who expect the highest national standards for addiction treatment, and we are committed to continually improving patient care.
We accept most major health insurance coverage, and clients travel from all over the U.S. to receive their personalized treatment with us.
Meth Abuse & Addiction Worsening in the U.S.
The total number of people becoming addicted to methamphetamine (or meth, for short) continues to rise unabated all over the U.S.
Since 2016, more than half a million more adults (aged over 26 years) have now become addicted to this highly addictive and dangerous drug, with the latest total across all ages standing at an estimated 2.1 million.
In the most recent fatal drug overdose figures released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), methamphetamine and other psychostimulants accounted for over 26,000 deaths in the past 12 months (up to May, 2021).
For those addicted to this drug, it can be drastically life-changing – or worse.
Learn more about the potential dangers and severe health risks of using and abusing meth right here.
What is Methamphetamine (Meth)?
Methamphetamine (known commonly as meth or crystal meth) is an extremely powerful and highly addictive stimulant drug, which produces a rapid and intense rush of euphoria when taken, known by users as the “flash.”
Although it is classified as a Schedule II drug by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), its medical use (under the brand name Desoxyn) is limited to the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and at a dose far lower than that normally abused illegally.
A powerful central nervous system (CNS) depressant, recreational users and those addicted to the drug will either smoke, snort, inject a solution of powdered meth mixed with water or alcohol, or swallow a pill to get high.
Immediate Effects: The Addictive Power of the Meth “Flash”
The immediate effects of taking methamphetamine and, in particular, crystal meth include:
- Intense euphoria, known as the flash (this can last for 30 minutes or longer)
- Feeling awake and alert
- Feeling extremely confident in oneself
- Feeling motivated to accomplish goals and tasks
- Experiencing a sense of an improved intellect and problem-solving abilities
For many first time users who experience the “flash” – a rapid state of extreme and absolute pleasure produced by meth use – the high is so powerfully memorable they are desperate to repeat it again and again.
It is why the drug is regarded as having the potential to be instantly addictive.
In fact, so strong is the addiction to meth, drug users are driven again and again to continue its dangerous and destructive use – all despite the clear damage to both their physical and mental health.
However, the meth high tends to start and stop quickly. This can lead people to take numerous doses over a few days, known as “binge and crash.” Serious addicts will often binge on meth for days and days, giving up food and sleep in order to do so.
Meth Inside Out: Brain & Behavior – The Crash
Equips viewers with an understanding of how meth changes the brain and, consequently, behavior. 3D animations, accessible explanations, and personal accounts help viewers understand complex scientific concepts. Users learn how to better cope with the stages of meth addiction and recovery by gaining an understanding of the biological underpinnings of the high, tolerance, craving, paranoia, aggression, anhedonia, and healing.
Chapter 3: The Crash
Demonstrates how meth use depletes the dopamine system and leads to a period of acute meth withdrawal characterized by exhaustion, irritability, craving, and drug seeking behavior.
Meth: Side Effects
Even though meth is abused for its euphoric high, users can still experience some other side effects, such as:
- More energy and reduced fatigue
- A positive sense of well-being
- Feeling of having more self-control
- Increased concentration
- Irregular or faster heart rate
- Rise in body temperature
- Higher blood pressure
- Rapid respiration
- Decrease in appetite
Meth’s most commonly abused form is a white, odorless, and bitter-tasting crystalline powder, commonly known as crystal meth. Abused by people of all ages, crystal meth is often used as a “club drug,” taken while partying in night clubs or at house parties.
All non-medical forms of methamphetamine use, possession and manufacture are illegal, and punishable by both fines and incarceration.
Nowadays, because meth is so easy to manufacture, many states have legal restrictions on the purchase and supply of substances known as precursor chemicals – commonly used to manufacture the drug, particularly pseudoephedrine, a common over-the-counter decongestant.
Meth & Crystal Meth: Street Names
Methamphetamine / meth has a huge number of alternative or street names, which, according to the DEA, include:
Pervitin (Czech Republic)
Yaba (Southeast Asia)
Manufacturing Meth, The “Stove Top” Drug
Meth is a man-made drug / synthetic chemical, and it is commonly manufactured in secret illegal laboratories, either in the U.S. or abroad (predominantly, in Mexico).
In fact, it’s so easy to produce or “cook up,” it is often made in “meth kitchens”, which can literally be a stovetop in a kitchen in someone’s house. Hence, one of its many street names is stovetop.
It is made by extracting certain chemicals from common cold remedy medications, eg. pseudoephedrine. However, pure meth or crystal meth is rare, as additional chemicals are often added to strengthen the substance’s potency.
These can be dangerously toxic substances such as battery acid, drain cleaner, and antifreeze.
However, the use of these chemicals is exceptionally risky, as they are potentially explosive.
Meth cooks, often drug users themselves and likely disoriented from being around these chemicals for long periods, have been known to accidentally blow themselves up, leaving many either dead or severely burned and scarred.
Lastly, running a meth lab creates a huge amount of toxic waste (1lb of meth = 5lbs of toxic waste), and those exposed to this waste risk becoming poisoned and sick.
Methamphetamine: Medicinal & Social History
As the resulting powder was water-soluble, the new drug was able to be injected. It was originally used in nasal decongestant medications and bronchial inhalers.
However, as with many dangerously addictive substances, the recreational use and abuse of meth soon became widely known.
The Japanese military forces used meth during World War II, as a way to keep its troops awake and alert. It was even successfully used in high doses when given to Japanese Kamikaze pilots before their suicide missions.
However, after the war, when supplies of the drug were made available to the general public, the abuse of meth by injection in Japan reached virtual epidemic status.
By the mid-20th century, meth was regularly used as a stimulant by American college students, long-distance truck drivers, and even athletes, and abuse of the drug soon spread rapidly in the U.S.
In 1970, the U.S. government made it illegal for most uses.
However, in the 1990s, meth made a big comeback in the illicit drug supply, thanks to the Mexican drug cartels who set up huge illegal meth labs in California, which, in turn, prompted the emergence of smaller, private “labs” in U.S. kitchens and apartments.
The Dangerous Effects of Meth Abuse
The numerous physical and psychological effects of methamphetamine use and abuse will vary based on how long a person has been using the drug.
Unsurprisingly, people who have used it for a significant period of time are likely to suffer greater and more diverse effects than those who have only just started using.
However, due to its potency, even the short-term effects of meth use can be dangerous.
Short-Term Effects of Methamphetamine Use & Abuse
- Increased physical activity
- Euphoric rush – the “flash”
- Decreased appetite
- Increased energy
- Rapid and/or irregular heart rate
- Increased motivation
- Increased blood pressure
- Positive sense of well-being
- Heightened alertness
- Seizures / Convulsions (in the event of an overdose)
Methamphetamine Abuse: Skin Sores and Infections
The destruction of blood vessels and muscle tissue in a meth user’s face prematurely ages the user; these photos show the worsened skin over a period of only 2½ years.
Long-Term Effects of Methamphetamine Use & Abuse
- Withdrawal symptoms when not using meth [see below for more details]
- Meth addiction / substance use disorder (SUD)
- Malnutrition / Weight loss
- Physical dependence and cravings
- Anxiety / Depression
- Impaired learning abilities
- Mood swings
- Significant memory impairment
- Violent behavior
- Severe dental issues (known as “Meth Mouth”)
- Delusions / Auditory and visual hallucinations, eg. “crank bugs”
- Skin abscesses and infections
- Hypertension (high blood pressure)
- Psychosis [see below]
- Risk of stroke and brain damage
- Seizures / Convulsions (these can become fatal without treatment)
Getting and staying sober is very challenging, but with the right support network and tools, it’s completely attainable.
What is Methamphetamine Psychosis?
Many people who abuse meth eventually develop methamphetamine-induced psychosis, a serious long-term effect of meth abuse.
The main symptoms of this form of psychosis are paranoia, delusions, and auditory and visual hallucinations.
Psychosis is defined by the National Institute on Mental Illness (NAMI) as:
- “Disruptions to a person’s thoughts and perceptions that make it difficult for them to recognize what is real and what isn’t.
- These disruptions are often experienced as seeing, hearing and believing things that aren’t real or having strange, persistent thoughts, behaviors and emotions.
- While everyone’s experience is different, most people say psychosis is frightening and confusing.”
The state of meth psychosis is also referred to as being “spun.” The condition may sound frightening and quite extreme, but, unfortunately, it’s fairly common.
A comparison of the condition, estimated to affect around 36.5% of meth users, alongside the severe mental health disorder schizophrenia found many similarities between the two.
These are the most commonly seen symptoms of meth-induced psychosis:
- Speaking rapidly
- Quickly changing the topic of conversation
- Having conversations that are difficult to follow
- Strange and unusual beliefs
- Believing others to be conspiring against you
- Itchy skin, eg. the sensation of insects crawling on you
Many individuals with meth-induced psychosis require either hospitalization or a lengthy stay in an inpatient medical detox facility.
Meth users can experience various types of hallucinations, with each being associated with one of their five senses. They may experience only one or two, or they may experience all five separate kinds:
- Auditory: The most common type of hallucination experienced are auditory hallucinations – imaginary sounds or conversations.
Sometimes, the hallucinations instruct the person to do something, usually to commit an act of violence against themselves or another person.
- Visual: Visual hallucinations refer to seeing things that are not actually there, such as objects, animals, or other people.
Many meth users refer to “shadow people,” which are peripheral visual hallucinations making them believe someone is standing there.
- Olfactory: Olfactory hallucinations refer to smelling things that are not actually present.
- Tactile: Tactile hallucinations are the false sense of touch, mostly of something on or under the skin, such as “crank bugs.”
- Gustatory: Gustatory hallucinations are false tastes, eg. believing that food has foreign objects in it.
Delusions refer to false beliefs held by the meth user that cannot be changed by reason. For example, meth addicts with a severe psychosis sometimes believe they are an entirely different person or an alter-ego.
The belief is so strong that it cannot be shaken by their friends, family, or doctors without intensive treatment.
Paranoia is a very common side effect of long-term meth use. For example, users often believe the government is watching them or out to get them, or that everyone around them is an undercover agent.
What is “Meth Mouth”?
Often the most visible sign of chronic meth use and addiction is “meth mouth” – a severe dental condition characterized by numerous cavities, broken and blackened teeth, and tooth loss.
The severe damage (seen graphically in the images) below is caused by the continuous drying out of salivary glands, a medical condition known as xerostomia, the result of chronic meth use.
Because of this “drying out” process, the acid in the mouth erodes away the tooth enamel, leaving extensive carious lesions (cavities), among other problems, and, if it is left untreated, it can even result in trismus, more commonly known as lockjaw.
Drug addicts, as part of their substance use disorder (SUD) tend to suffer from anxiety, and meth addicts are no different.
Severe anxiety in meth users can result in bruxism – the constant grinding of teeth and jaw-clenching.
As you can imagine, with the addict’s teeth already weakened, it results in even more damage and decay.
“Meth Mouth”: Severe Dental Damage
Photo left: “Meth mouth” in short-term user, and photo right: “Meth mouth” in long-term user
Lastly, with the additional complications of poor nutrition and a lack of oral hygiene, the situation is worsened further.
In fact, according to one particular NIDA study of over 500 meth users, it was found that:
- 96% had carious lesions or cavities
- 58% had untreated tooth decay, compared with only 27% of the general U.S. population
- Only 23% were able to keep all of their natural teeth, compared to 48% of the population
- 40% reported they were highly self-conscious and embarrassed because of their poor dental state
What are “Meth Bugs”?
Delusional parasitosis (known as “crank bugs”) is one of the most common mental delusions caused by the long-term abuse of methamphetamine. Meth users hallucinate small bugs crawling all over their skin, believing them to really be there.
As a consequence, they will often furiously scratch at the skin on their face and neck, their arms and legs, and their chest and stomach.
This usually leaves broken areas of skin, which turn into open sores, leading to infection.
Crank bugs are also known among meth users and addicts as meth bugs, ice mites, and meth mites.
Meth abusers are often characterized by the sores on their faces, arms, and other body parts caused by constantly picking at their skin. Although the crank bugs are pure illusion, they are so real to the user that they firmly believe they can both see them and feel them.
Meth Addiction: Powerful, Rapid & Life-Changing
Addiction to meth – medically termed as methamphetamine use disorder – can have a powerful, rapid and life-changing effect on all aspects of a drug user’s life.
From your previous life as, perhaps, a college student, a young working professional, or a happily married spouse and the father or mother of young children, meth addiction makes you no more than a loyal slave to its continued use. Nothing else, sadly, really matters anymore.
It easily has the potential to damage and destroy everything good in your life – once you experience the meth flash for the first time.
How Addictive is Methamphetamine?
Methamphetamine / meth is highly addictive – in fact, it’s one of the most addictive illicit drugs in use in the U.S. today.
People will normally become addicted to a particular substance because of its repeated use over a period of time, which creates a physical dependence with the user.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Unn9TH3wGo&t=4sCrystal Meth Addiction
A short documentary about crystal meth addiction.
However, with meth, the psychological side of addiction can be very rapid because of the intense but short-lived euphoric flash they experience.
Even after just one hit of meth, many are desperate to try it again and again – as soon as possible.
Eventually, as with drugs and alcohol, methamphetamine creates a physical tolerance in the user, meaning that they need more of the drug to get a similar high.
This often results in those who usually swallow or snort their meth to begin smoking or injecting it – all to get a more powerful and quicker high.
How Does Methamphetamine Affect the Brain?
All addictive drugs change the way the brain works by releasing a flood of dopamine when they are used. This is the reason why drug users experience euphoric feelings when taking these drugs.
Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, plays a key role in addiction. Known as the “happy chemical,” it is what causes people to feel happy and content.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTMNXzL4O4sThe Reward Circuit: How the Brain Responds to Methamphetamine
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)
Learn about the brain reward system and the biochemical processes that occur during methamphetamine use.
With repeated use, drugs like meth will severely disrupt how the brain’s dopamine system works, lessening a person’s ability to feel pleasure from normal, everyday activities.
Over time, people get so used to experiencing the euphoric rush of their drug use just to feel good, their brains cannot function normally without the drug.
People will often develop a tolerance to a drug, which means they must take more of the drug to get the desired effect.
Meth Use & Addiction: Signs & Symptoms
Signs & Symptoms of Methamphetamine Use & Addiction
- Bouts of hyperactivity
- Inability to stop using meth
- Talkativeness / Talking about committing suicide
- Continuing to use emth if when there are clear health issues
- Loss of appetite
- Using to drug to deal with stress
- Sleeping less
- Becoming obsessed with meth
- Skin sores (from scratching / itching)
- Taking risks to obtain meth
- Burns on the lips or fingers (from using a meth pipe)
- Appearance of meth paraphernalia, such as a pipe, cigarette lighters, etc.
- Sudden mood swings
- Denying that a drug problem exists
- Angry or violent behavior
- Financial problems
- Severely altered physical appearance
Your health insurance plan may cover your recovery at SpringBoard. Verifying your insurance is quick and easy!
Can You Overdose on Methamphetamine?
Yes, you can overdose on methamphetamine, as the drug can raise your body temperature to the point where you pass out. If this is not treated right away, it can result in death.
Death can also occur from a heart attack or stroke because the drug dangerously increases your heartbeat and blood pressure, constricting blood vessels.
Additionally, in recent years, illicit drug manufacturers have been adding the deadly opioid fentanyl to many products, including methamphetamine, because it is far cheaper to make.
The total number of fatal drug overdoses in the U.S. during 2020 stands at 93,331 – a huge increase of 29.4% across the nation compared to 2019, according to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), part of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC).
Here in Arizona, the increase in mortality was even higher than the national average – at 33.7%.
Additionally, overdose mortality saw more deaths from synthetic opioids, primarily fentanyl, psychostimulants, such as meth, and cocaine. The 2020 provisional data shows deaths attributable in part to:
- Synthetic opioids – increased by 54%
- Cocaine – increased by 21%, and
- Psychostimulants, including meth – increased by 46%
Meth Use & Addiction in the U.S.: Facts & Stats
As stated earlier, the total number of people becoming addicted to methamphetamine continues to rise unabated all over the U.S.
More than half a million more adults (aged over 26 years) have now become addicted to this highly addictive and dangerous drug since 2016, with the latest total (for those over the age 12) standing at an estimated 2.1 million.
The upward trend in methamphetamine use over the last 5 years or so in adults over 26 has resulted in a sharp increase from 1.1 million to 1.7 million, as the graph below clearly shows:
Methamphetamine: Continued Use / Addiction – Age 12+ (2016-2019)
Open Source: SAMHSA.gov
In the most recent figures released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) for fatal drug overdose deaths, methamphetamine and other psychostimulants have accounted for over 26,000 deaths in the past 12 months (up to May, 2021).
Teenage Methamphetamine Use in the U.S.
As you can also see from the NIDA graph shown above, around 41,000 U.S. teenagers were reported to be using meth in 2019.
Although the total percentage has remained reasonably constant (at around 2%), the number of 12th graders reporting meth use in 2020 has increased significantly, as shown highlighted in red in the table below using the latest data from the NIDA:
How to Recover from Meth Addiction
The only effective way of recovering from meth addiction requires professional addiction treatment for both the physical and psychological sides of the disorder.
It is vital for people who are addicted to meth to go through both a professional medically assisted detox and a professional and accredited drug rehab for a realistic prospect of recovery.
Meth Withdrawal: Symptoms & Timeline
People who try to quit using meth without assistance often experience uncomfortable and even severe symptoms of withdrawal, and all with an exceptionally powerful craving to start using again.
Unfortunately, the vast majority who attempt this quickly return to their previous drug use just to alleviate the pain and discomfort they are feeling.
The severity of the withdrawal depends on a number of factors, including:
- The length of time the individual used meth
- The amount of meth they used
- How frequently they used, and
- Whether they engaged in polydrug use (and abused other substances)
Additionally, other factors, such as the method used to consume the drug, can further affect withdrawal. For example, those who inject meth will typically experience a longer, more intense withdrawal than those who don’t.
Symptoms Methamphetamine Withdrawal
- Excessive sweating
- Stomach ache
- Red, itchy eyes
- Loss of motivation
- Severe depression
- Suicidal thoughts
The specific length of time for withdrawal to last varies between individuals, but the most acute phase of withdrawal normally peaks around Day Two or Three after the person’s last use.
Generally, withdrawal symptoms will begin to lessen after a week.
However, because of the sheer potency of meth, the psychological symptoms, such as mood swings, agitation, drug cravings, and sleep disturbances can persist for many weeks.
Additionally, in some cases, depression can last for several months, and even up to a year.
Timeline of Methamphetamine Withdrawal
- The first 48 hours
- This phase, known as the “crash,” occurs within the first 48 hours of stopping the use of the meth. During the first 24-48 hours, users will start to experience a sharp drop in energy and cognitive function, as well as the symptoms of nausea, abdominal cramping, and sweating.
- Day 3 to 10
- Withdrawal symptoms will normally peak during this period. As the body and the brain attempt to adjust to functioning without meth, users will experience severe depression, anxiety, and extreme fatigue. Additionally, some will also experience shaking, muscle aches, and intense drug cravings.
- Day 14 to 20
- Symptoms of withdrawal normally last around 2-3 weeks. Towards the end of the second week, most physical symptoms should begin to subside, but intense drug cravings can still persist. Additionally, continuing fatigue and depression are common.
- 1 Month+
- The worst of withdrawal symptoms are normally over at this stage. Any remaining symptoms should fade over time. However, for some, the psychological symptoms (depression and anxiety) may continue for several months before they fully subside.
A professional and comprehensive drug detox is necessary for those addicted to methamphetamine, as some of the potential withdrawal symptoms can be severe and, in some cases, life-threatening without medical supervision.
Drug Rehabilitation for Meth Addiction Recovery
Once the medical detox has been completed, the individual is then ready to move onto the drug rehabilitation element of their addiction recovery treatment.
Drug rehab provides the necessary forms of addiction therapy, including both individual and group counseling sessions.
It is important to not only treat the physical addiction itself, but the underlying cause must be identified and treated as well.
People can abuse drugs like meth for many reasons, such as stress, out of boredom or curiosity. However, about 50% of people who use it are doing so because they are attempting to self-medicate the symptoms and effects of a mental health disorder or previous trauma.
When an individual is suffering simultaneously with a substance addiction and a mental health disorder, this is medically known as co-occurring disorder or dual diagnosis.
Co-Occurring Disorders & Dual Diagnosis Treatment
Unfortunately, co-occurring disorders are all too common among people with drug and alcohol addiction. Being diagnosed with this disorder indicates the presence of a mental health issue that has either contributed to or is the result of the person’s substance abuse.
There are many mental health disorders that people try to self-medicate with potent drugs like methamphetamine, including:
- Bipolar disorder
- Eating disorders
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Dual diagnosis treatment helps in the recovery of those people who are suffering with co-occurring disorders. This form of addiction treatment addresses both the mental health issue and the substance abuse problem at the same time.
SpringBoard Recovery: Meth Addiction Treatment
At SpringBoard Recovery, we know how serious and how desperate the need for effective recovery from meth addiction really is. Many people are suffering needlessly because of this potentially lethal drug, as some of them may not know where to turn to get the professional help they need.
We offer a professional and accredited intensive outpatient drug treatment program for methamphetamine addiction, and we have clients traveling from out of state to receive their treatment with us.
When clients first come to us for professional assistance, we can provide them with a detox referral so they can receive the medical supervision they need when they go through the withdrawal process.
Afterward, they are ready to begin their drug rehab with us.
Furthermore, we can provide on-site sober living accommodation – a comfortable, drug-free place to stay while they participate in our program. In fact, we also welcome Arizona residents, as some prefer to live in our sober living homes simply because continuing to stay at home would not be helpful for their recovery.
We are here to provide professional assistance to anyone who is struggling with meth addiction. If you have questions that need to be answered, or would you like to know more about our methamphetamine treatment program, please contact us today.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). What is Methamphetamine? October, 2019. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC): Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts” System. September, 2021. Available at CDC.gov.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Methamphetamine – Drug Facts. May, 2019. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
- U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Drug Fact Sheet: Methamphetamine. April, 2020. Available at DEA.gov.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine: Medicine Plus. Pseudoephedrine. February, 2018. Available at MedicinePlus.gov.
- U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Methamphetamine. 2021. Available at DEA.gov.
- U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Amphetamine. 2021. Available at DEA.gov.
- Drug Free World. History of Methamphetamine. 2020. Available at DrugFreeWorld.org.
- National Alliance on Mental Illness. Early Psychosis and Psychosis. 2021. Available at NAMI.org.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine. A Comparison of Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis and Schizophrenia. October, 2018. Available at NLM.NIH.gov.
- U.S. Department of Justice – Archive. Meth Awareness Homepage. 2021. Available at Justice.gov.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Meth Mouth: Some Ugly Numbers. February, 2016. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
- Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Webcast Slides for the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. December, 2020. Available at SAMHSA.gov.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs. December, 2020. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Comorbidity: Substance Use & Other Mental Disorders. June, 2021. August, 2018. Available at DrugAbuse.gov.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Depression. February, 2018. Available at NIMH.NIH.gov.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Bipolar Disorder. January, 2020. Available at NIMH.NIH.gov.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Eating Disorders. February, 2016. Available at NIMH.NIH.gov.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). September, 2019. Available at NIMH.NIH.gov.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). May, 2019. Available at NIMH.NIH.gov.