For many people struggling with substance abuse issues, their greatest concern about finally accessing professional drug and alcohol addiction treatment is a simple one – cost.
According to the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use & Health, in 2019, throughout the nation, 18 million people diagnosed with a substance use disorder (SUD) did not receive the treatment they needed. The reason? A huge percentage of these believed they just could not afford it.
Following the arrival of the coronavirus pandemic in the U.S., one of the most worrying outcomes to appear was an increase in the number of those struggling with mental health issues, and sharp increases in both substance use and abuse.
Many studies have cited numerous reports from 2020 of increased anxiety, depression and stress across the U.S. population, compounded by a lack of access to mental health and substance abuse treatment.
However, no matter what your personal and financial circumstances might be, it is vitally important for anyone with substance abuse issues to know that there is professional and affordable treatment out there.
What Does “Free Rehab” Really Mean?
“Free Rehab” is a very general, all-encompassing phrase to describe any form of drug or alcohol addiction treatment where the person receiving the treatment incurs no real costs.
Examples of this are:
- Specific types of substance addiction treatment, e.g. outpatient programs, where the individual’s costs are paid for by their healthcare insurance coverage
- Substance addiction treatment programs covered by Medicaid
- Other state-funded substance addiction treatment programs
- Substance addiction services provided free by a charity, e.g. The Salvation Army
- Substance addiction treatment grants, e.g. under the grant scheme run by the Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
- Mutual aid support groups, such as 12 Step-based groups provided by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), non-secular support groups, such as SMART (Self-Management And Recovery Training) Recovery, religion-based groups, and other mutual aid support groups
In this article, we will look in detail at these forms of “free rehab,” and describe how to access the benefits and, specifically, the addiction treatment services of each.
However, before looking at those free rehab options, let’s consider the actual cost of substance addiction.
How Much is Your Drug or Alcohol Addiction Costing You?
Being strongly addicted to a particular drug or to alcohol is an extremely expensive business, whether we’re discussing the actual daily financial cost, or the personal, deeply emotional cost, like the breakups of a marriage or a family.
For the average person, an untreated drug or alcohol use disorder will impact their finances, their mental and physical health, their home life, their social life, their work life, even their liberty, and beyond.
For the individual, the financial cost of attending a drug or alcohol rehab program is far cheaper than the cost of the drug or alcohol addiction. Consider how much money you are currently spending on the drugs of your choice.
Once you combine the cost of the drugs used, mental and physical health issues, related work issues, and potential legal issues, it is easy to see that drug or alcohol addiction can cost you much, much more than the cost of the treatment you need.
The Financial Cost of Substance Addiction in the U.S.
The financial costs of drug addiction or alcoholism do not stop with the person suffering with the disorder, either.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the estimated cost of substance abuse and addiction in the U.S., including illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco, is more than $740 billion a year, and steadily growing.
The Cost of Addiction Treatment vs. The Cost of Addiction
The NIDA also reports that, according to several expert estimates, every single U.S. dollar invested in drug and alcohol addiction treatment programs provides a return of between $4 and $7 in reduced drug-related crime, criminal justice costs, and theft.
Once savings to healthcare are included in the estimates, this return increases to around $12.
Comparing a specific addiction treatment with the cost of incarceration is equally enlightening. For example, the average cost for 1 full year of methadone maintenance treatment is approximately $4,700 per patient, whereas 1 full year of imprisonment costs around $24,000 per person.
Additionally, for the individual, attending addiction treatment reduces the prospect of later being arrested for a drug-related crime by 50%, and increases employment prospects by around 40%.
This is because U.S. substance abuse results in increased healthcare costs, increased crime, and lost economic productivity.
In fact, many of today’s statistics simply cannot keep up with the rising costs of drug and alcohol addiction because many elements of daily life are included.
For example, while the NIDA reports the total overall annual cost of prescription opioid use at $78.5 billion, the estimate is based on 2013 – even before the official declaration of the U.S. opioid epidemic.
Therefore, the real figure must be far, far higher.
Here are other estimated total costs, relating to substance type:
- Alcohol abuse: $249 billion; binge-drinking accounts for $191 billion of this total cost to society, including lost productivity at work (77%), legal expenses (10%), medical expenses (11%), and healthcare expenses from alcohol-related accidents (5%)
- Illegal drug abuse: $193 billion, including an estimated $11 billion in direct health care costs
Obviously, as stated above, the total costs to society for substance addiction exceeds the physical financial cost, which can include:
- Unemployment, domestic abuse, divorce, and homelessness
- Overdose deaths
- The effects on unborn children, and
- The spread of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C
Drug & Alcohol Rehab Covered by Private Healthcare Insurance
Drug and alcohol addiction treatment covered by an individual’s healthcare insurance is undoubtedly the most common way for the average American to access the drug and alcohol addiction treatment they need.
In fact, the majority of outpatient drug and alcohol addiction treatment provided in the U.S. is covered by healthcare insurance, following the introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, signed into law by President Obama.
The Act – at the time, a much-needed and comprehensive reform of healthcare services – ensures that substance addiction treatment is classified like any other form of medical treatment, and the associated costs should be covered by all standard healthcare insurance plans.
Therefore, for anyone with adequate health insurance attending an outpatient program for their substance abuse issues, all normal costs are covered, and paid for by their healthcare insurance company.
In other words, for outpatients, their addiction treatment is usually free.
However, unless it is specifically included in any health insurance plan, the more expensive inpatient (or residential) addiction treatment is normally not free in its entirety, although certain elements of the program may be covered, or discounted in some way, e.g. substance use disorder (SUD) medications.
The Importance of Verifying Your Healthcare Insurance
When considering which addiction treatment program would be the best option, it is imperative people should ascertain the exact level of their healthcare insurance coverage, either by speaking to the insurance company, or by contacting the addiction treatment provider.
In fact, the wisest option would be to contact both to be absolutely sure you are not going to get hit with unexpected expenses at a later date.
The last thing anyone needs when attempting to recover from substance addiction is unnecessary stress and worry about finances.
For example, SpringBoard Recovery can verify your healthcare insurance for you. All you need to do is simply access their insurance verification page, with your insurance card handy, to see if your provider will cover the full costs of your addiction treatment.
What Types of Healthcare Insurance are Accepted?
Obviously, the types of healthcare insurance that can be accepted are entirely dependent upon the drug and alcohol addiction treatment facility who are offering the treatment program.
In-Network & Out of Network Healthcare Providers
People with health insurance coverage need to understand that, in order to reduce costs, their insurance company provides them with access to a network of healthcare providers, including medical doctors, facilities, and pharmacies.
These health care providers are classified as in-network.
In order to be part of a healthcare insurance company’s network, these doctors, facilities and services have to meet certain credentialing requirements, and also must agree to accept a discounted rate for their covered services, including addiction treatment programs.
However, if a particular doctor or facility has no network contract with your healthcare insurance company, they’re considered to be out-of-network, and can charge full price for any service they provide to you – usually far higher than the in-network discounted rate.
In-network is generally considered to be the best way to save money on the specific treatment that is needed.
What Types of Services are Covered by Insurance in Arizona?
Most health insurance companies in Arizona and elsewhere will offer some type of coverage for any recommended method of addiction treatment. However, every health insurance plan is different.
As mentioned previously, many healthcare insurance companies offer payment in full for those people who choose in-network outpatient rehab programs, and only partial payment for any inpatient programs.
Under the provisions set out by the ACA, types of addiction treatment covered by healthcare insurance should include:
- Drug and alcohol detox: This form of substance abuse treatment may be considered necessary depending on the type of addiction a person has. Research has repeatedly shown us how important it is for people to be careful when they come off certain types of drugs.
For example, opioids, benzodiazepines, alcohol and stimulants can all cause dangerous or even fatal withdrawal symptoms. Detox in a medical environment can help to avoid these unwanted complications.
- Individual therapy sessions: Therapy is an essential part of drug and alcohol rehab. Working with a counselor / therapist one-to-one has many benefits, and it is often considered the cornerstone of addiction treatment.
- Group therapy – Similar to individual therapy, group therapy offers people peer support and a sense of community as they recover from their addiction. Group therapy has been shown to be an integral part of most treatment plans during rehab.
- Medication management services: Many people need to rely on medications during rehab. During the detox phase, they can be used for helping to control withdrawal symptoms, and during the rehab phase, they may be necessary because of the presence of any mental health or physical health issues that also need to be addressed.
- Dual diagnosis treatment: Dual diagnosis treatment is required for those people who have a co-occurring disorder, such as anxiety or depression, alongside their substance use disorder. This ensures that their mental health is being treated simultaneously, which is often a contributing factor when it comes to substance abuse.
Every insurance plan is different, as mentioned previously, in terms of the medical services they cover, and those services they do not. However, most health insurance providers do offer some type of coverage for the recommended level of care that is needed.
Medicaid Public Health Insurance & Addiction Treatment
Residents of Arizona who qualify for the public insurance program known as Medicaid (available to low-income families) are entitled to claim the substance addiction treatments costs that they incur.
What is Medicaid?
Medicaid is a public health insurance plan provided to low-income adults, children,* pregnant women, elderly adults and people with disabilities who satisfactorily meet specific criteria.
*Children are covered by the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP).
The Medicaid program is administered by individual U.S. states, according to federal requirements, and it is funded jointly by the states and the federal government.
Currently, according to their latest Enrollment Report, dated April, 2021, 75.4 million people in the U.S. are covered by Medicaid.
Medicaid & Substance Addiction: Facts & Stats
- Medicaid provides affordable health coverage to more than 74 million Americans who are enrolled in the program
- If you include the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), this figure rises to more than 81 million
- Medicaid is the largest payer of mental health services in the U.S., and continues to expand in the reimbursement of substance addiction services
- The Affordable Care Act, 2010 (ACA) allows U.S. states to expand Medicaid coverage to nearly all low-income adults under the age of 65.
- Nearly 12% of all Medicaid recipients over the age of 18 have a substance use disorder (SUD)
Medicaid’s Benefits for Drug & Alcohol Rehab Programs
Medicaid public health insurance offers full benefits for the following drug and alcohol rehab programs and services:
- Substance abuse screenings: Medicaid will cover the cost of medical screenings to diagnose any substance use disorder (SUD), and advise you about which type of addiction rehab you need, if any.
- Intervention services: If your family has to use a professional addiction intervention, all or most of the cost of it will be covered by Medicaid.
- Drug and alcohol detox medications: Many people need to take specific medications when they begin their addiction recovery. For example, those with opioid use disorder (OUD) are often prescribed medication for opioid use disorder (known as MOUD), such as methadone and suboxone.
- Family therapy: Family is recognized as often being the biggest source of support for people in addiction recovery. Family therapy is highly recommended to repair relationships that have been damaged as a result of substance abuse.
- Inpatient treatment: If you are diagnosed with severe drug or alcohol addiction, and you are recommended for inpatient rehab, Medicaid offers benefits to offset these costs.
- Long-term residential rehab: If it is recommended that you need a higher level of care than even inpatient treatment has to offer, Medicaid will still cover the treatment you need in a long-term facility.
- Outpatient rehab: Medicaid offers coverage for people who need both inpatient and outpatient programs alike. Many people in recovery begin by going to an inpatient rehab center. However, Medicaid will still offer coverage once you are ready to move into an outpatient treatment program.
- Additional mental health services: Substance addictions frequently accompany mental health issues. Getting treatment for your mental health is vitally important. Medicaid provides coverage for those who require mental health services or dual diagnosis treatment as well.
Free Drug & Alcohol Rehab: Non-Insurance Options in Arizona
Even though a professional and accredited drug and alcohol rehab is normally the best possible place for those people in Arizona with a substance addiction, it may not always be financially possible for one reason or another.
Fortunately, there are alternative ways for people to get a level of substance addiction support, and even without rehab, recovery is possible.
Earlier in this article, we mentioned the different types of free rehab that are available. Here are the insurance-free options in more detail:
State-Funded Substance Addiction Treatment Programs
According to a 2017 report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), there were over 2 million admissions to facilities that receive state alcohol and/or drug agency funds for the provision of rehab treatment services in the U.S.
State-funded drug and alcohol rehab centers are addiction treatment facilities that are paid for through the federal tax system.
They accept funding from a number of sources in order to provide rehab services to those people who would otherwise be unable to afford them – for example, those with insufficient insurance coverage.
The specific sources of funding vary by U.S. state, but they are normally a combination of federal grants, state budgets, and reimbursement through Medicaid.
State-Funded Rehab Eligibility
The majority of state-funded rehab programs have strict eligibility requirements. When applying to these programs, you will normally be asked to show:
- Proof of U.S. citizenship
- Income history
- Proof you do not have insurance, and
- Proof of residency within the state where you are seeking rehab
How to Find a State-Funded Rehab Near You
The SAMHSA provides a free Directory of Single State Agencies (SSAs) for Substance Use Services to assist in finding a state-funded rehab near you.
A large majority of SSA resources are dedicated to providing addiction treatment to individuals who are uninsured or have low incomes.
Additionally, the Treatment Services Locator, again provided by SAMHSA, allows you to find nearby treatment centers based on your home address.
Your search results can be filtered based on any specific requirements you may have, such as:
- Service settings, e.g. outpatient or residential
- Availability of payment assistance, and
- Special programs and groups, eg. programs specifically designed for LGBT clients or persons with co-occurring disorders
Charity-Sponsored Substance Addiction Services
Throughout the U.S., countless charitable and non-profit organizations work directly with substance abuse, normally within prevention services.
They focus on helping people stay informed about drugs and alcohol, how to stay off them, and ensure the individuals and families can access the help and support they need.
However, some charities do have a hands-on approach to addiction treatment, such as the Salvation Army – the largest provider of free, no cost residential rehabilitation programs in the U.S.
There are 3 categories of substance abuse charities in the U.S.:
- 47% focus on treatment only
- 34.5% focus on dependency, prevention and treatment, and
- 18.5% focus solely on prevention
The Salvation Army: Drug & Alcohol Addiction Treatment & Emergency Housing
The Salvation Army is the largest provider of free, no cost residential rehabilitation programs in the country.
Each year, they help more than 150,000 adults conquer alcohol and drug addiction.
Using a faith-based program, participants are taught to identify the root cause of their dependence, and seek recovery through strength from God.
The Salvation Army offers two different approaches:
Charity-Sponsored Substance Addiction Services in Arizona
Substance abuse charities here in Arizona have more revenue per organization than those in 41 other U.S. and Washington, D.C. However, the rate of substance use disorders in Arizona is also higher than most, and pushes the average Arizona charity’s spending per patient to only $16 over the national average in the U.S – $314 vs. $298.
Substance Addiction Treatment Grants
The Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant (SABG) enables states and jurisdictions to provide substance abuse prevention activities, treatment and recovery support services.
It places an emphasis on the provision of treatment services for “populations of focus”:
- Intravenous drug users
- Pregnant women, and
- Women with dependent children
The SABG is administered by the SAMHSA’s Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s (CSAT) Performance Partnership Branch, in collaboration with the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention’s (CSAP) Division of State Programs.
Mutual Aid Support Groups
In recent years, they have been joined by other mutual aid support groups, such as the non-secular SMART (Self-Management And Recovery Training) Recovery, faith-based groups, and other mutual aid support groups.
Drug and Alcohol Addiction in Arizona: Facts & Stats
Historically, Arizona has long had issues with drug and alcohol abuse, and, in response, has many different options for substance addiction treatment, from those covered by private healthcare insurance to the free services described previously.
For some substances, including alcohol, it is still one of the worst states in the U.S.
Here are the telling facts and statistics for drug and alcohol addiction in Arizona that clearly show if you are currently suffering from a substance use disorder (SUD), you are certainly not alone.
Arizona Statewide Substance Use & Abuse
Looking at substance use and abuse in generally terms for the state of Arizona, according to the “Arizona 2018 Statewide Substance Use Prevention Needs Assessment”:
- The counties experiencing the most severe consequences of substance use in Arizona are Gila County, Navajo County, Mohave County, and Pima County
- The normalization of marijuana and other substances may be leading to an increase in other substance use
- State-wide efforts to combat the opioid crisis in Arizona are increasing street drug use
- LGBTQ identified individuals experience significantly more risks, consequences, and issues with substance use and/or misuse, as compared to non-LGBTQ identified individuals
- Increasing numbers of Arizonans from all demographics are suffering from untreated mental health issues, a primary cause of substance use and/or misuse
Additionally, using the same data source, among Arizonans aged 12 and older:
- 50.9% reported they currently use alcohol on a regular basis
- 22.6% reported regular episodes of binge drinking
- 12.2% reported using any type of illicit drug
- 7.4% reported using marijuana recreationally
- 2.1% reported using cocaine within the last year
- 0.5% reported using heroin at least once within the last year
Arizona: Fatal Drug Overdoses
A record number of U.S. citizens died from drug overdoses during 2020 as the nation struggled to contain the coronavirus pandemic, according to official provisional data from the National Center of Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC).
In total, an estimated 93,331 Americans died of a drug overdose – a near 30% increase from the previous year.
The U.S.’s 29.4% increase in fatal drug overdoses during 2020 translates to around 250 deaths occurring every single day, or a death every 5 and a half minutes.
Here in Arizona, the state suffered far worse, witnessing a year-on-year increase of 33.7% for fatal drug overdoses, compared to the U.S. national average of 29.4%.
It means that in 2020, there were more than 7 deaths every day in Arizona caused by a drug overdose, totalling 2,660 deaths throughout the year.
Furthermore, according to the latest data and information on how the U.S. opioid crisis has impacted the state of Arizona (currently available from Arizona’s Department of Health Services (ADHS)), there were approximately 9,640 opioid-related deaths in the state between June, 2017 to June, 2021.
Alcohol Use, Binge Drinking & Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) in Arizona
Alcohol is the most abused substance in Arizona – both for the young and the old. In fact, over half the population of the state regularly consumes alcohol every month, according to Arizona’s 2018 assessment, mentioned previously.
Looking at these current alcohol users, 44.3% report they have engaged in binge drinking during the last 30 days.
Furthermore, based upon data from the CDC:
- Arizona is the 4th worst state for death from alcohol poisoning in the U.S.
- Around 76% (or 3 in 4) of those who died from alcohol poisoning in Arizona were aged between 35 – 65 years
- 2.5% of all ER visits in the state of Arizona have been the direct result of binge drinking
- Additionally, binge drinking is related to about 4.5% of all inpatient hospitalizations
- Alcohol is (at least) a contributing factor in around one-third of all ER visits in Arizona
SpringBoard Recovery: Drug & Alcohol Addiction Treatment
From your finances to the extensive personal damage it can cause, substance addiction really costs.
SpringBoard Recovery is a professional drug and alcohol rehab center located in Scottsdale, Arizona (near Phoenix), and we offer an accredited intensive outpatient drug treatment program, helping our clients successfully recover from a range of drug and alcohol addictions.
We have earned many years of full accreditation from the Joint Commission, who expect the highest national standards for addiction treatment, and we are committed to continually improving patient care.
Do not let the cost of rehab deter you from getting the help that you need.
We accept most major health insurance coverage, and clients travel from all over the U.S. to receive their personalized treatment with us, with many staying in our on-site, substance-free Sober Living accommodation.
Free Drug & Alcohol Rehab: FAQs
What is the Affordable Care Act?
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was a comprehensive reform to health care signed into law in 2010 by President Obama. The healthcare reform law had 3 goals:
- To make health insurance more affordable, and, therefore, more accessible for more people. It provides people with tax credits or subsidies that can effectively lower the cost of health insurance for people with incomes that are between 100% and 400% of the federal poverty level.
- To expand the Medicaid program for all adults who have an income that is below 138% of the poverty level.
- To support new and innovative medical care delivery methods which are designed to generally lower the cost of healthcare.
The ACA has done much for the addiction treatment industry, and for the people who desperately need to go to rehab.
In addition to all of the above, the law also requires health insurance companies to provide benefits to customers who need substance detox and rehab.
Are there free rehab programs available in Arizona?
Yes, there are ways to go to rehab for free if you live in Arizona.
If you currently have Medicaid, you should be able to secure a place in a state-run drug or alcohol rehab and the cost should be covered completely. If you do not have health insurance, there is another avenue that you can pursue.
SAMHSA offers grants every year to help cover the cost of drug and alcohol treatment for people who do not have health insurance. This is a great option because it should cover the cost of detox and rehab in full, with no additional money required out of pocket.
What can people do to access addiction treatment if they are without health insurance?
If a person does not have health insurance, and they do not qualify for a grant through SAMHSA, there are other ways for them to get the treatment they need.
It can require some thinking “out-of-the-box,” but the following are all options:
- Talking with a loved one about borrowing the money to help cover the costs of treatment.
- Getting information about financing options, which may cover the cost of rehab in full.
- Charging the treatment to a credit card.
- Taking out a personal loan to help cover the costs.
- Visiting local community centers and non-profits to get information on possible scholarships or other types of funding for rehab.
It is also a good idea to discuss the financial hardship and the clinical need for rehab with someone at your local Department of Social Services. They may be able to provide additional assistance and help you get the treatment you need faster.
What types of addiction treatment does Medicaid cover?
People who live in Arizona on Medicaid will not have to worry about co-pays when it comes to addiction treatment.
If you are on Medicaid, your health insurance offers benefits for the following services:
- Substance abuse screenings: You may have questions about whether you have an addiction that needs treatment. Medicaid will cover the cost of screenings to inform you about what type of rehab you need, if any.
- Intervention services: If your family has to have a professional addiction intervention, all or most of the cost of it will be covered by Medicaid.
- Drug and alcohol detox medications: Many people need to take medications like Methadone or Suboxone when they begin recovery. These and other medications can help with withdrawal symptoms, and they are covered by Medicaid.
- Family therapy: The family is often the biggest source of support for people in addiction recovery. Family therapy is usually highly recommended to repair relationships that have been damaged as a result of substance abuse.
- Inpatient treatment: If you are recommended for inpatient rehab, you will not have to worry about paying the bill on your own. Medicaid offers benefits to offset these costs.
- Long-term residential rehab: Perhaps you have been told that you need a higher level of care than even inpatient treatment has to offer. If that is the case, Medicaid will still cover the treatment you need in a long-term facility.
- Outpatient rehab: Medicaid offers coverage for people who need both inpatient and outpatient programs. Like many people, you may have started by going to an inpatient rehab center, but they will still offer coverage once you are ready to move into outpatient treatment.
- Additional mental health services: Substance addictions frequently accompany mental health issues. Getting treatment for these is vital. In fact, you may not be able to recover from your addiction unless you do. Medicaid will provide coverage for those mental health services as well.
Can I get healthcare insurance straight away?
You may be able to apply for a health insurance policy you can afford by visiting HealthCare.gov.
Once there, you will be redirected to your state health insurance website. Please be aware that you may not always be able to apply, depending on what types of applications they are accepting at the time.
There is usually an open enrollment period each year, but you can also ask for an exception.
Once you have health insurance, you should have no trouble finding a drug and alcohol rehab you can afford. You may even find that your treatment is covered in full.
How long should I expect to stay in addiction treatment?
Most people find success in addiction recovery with a “step-down” approach. For example, if you choose to go to an inpatient rehab center, an intensive outpatient program may be recommended for you after you finish.
Ongoing treatment is the best option if you want to recover from your addiction. People who continue to get the help they need often find that they are much more likely to remain in recovery long-term.
What are the main differences between a private drug and alcohol rehab program and a state-run rehab program in Arizona?
At some point, you may need to make the decision between a public rehab and a private rehab. Both have their worthy benefits, and you should choose the one that is right for you.
Public rehab programs are often free for patients. Because the treatment is free, it is in extremely high demand.
Private rehab offers many more benefits in that they do accept insurance, which can keep your costs low. They also often tend to keep their patient population low, which gives you more time with the staff.
They usually offer these other benefits,such as:
- Better accommodation
- Better food
- Holistic treatment options
- A higher overall success rate
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- Alcoholics Anonymous. 2021. Available at AA.org.
- Narcotics Anonymous. 2021. Available at NA.org.
- SMART (Self-Management And Recovery Training) Recovery. 20201. Available at SmartRecovery.org.
- Arizona’s Department of Health Services. Arizona 2018 Statewide Substance Use Prevention Needs Assessment. September, 2018. Available at AZAHCCCS.gov.
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). National Center of Health Statistics. October, 2021. Available at CDC.gov.
- Arizona’s Department of Health Services. Opioid Epidemic. October, 2021. Available at AzDHS.gov.
- U.S. Government Benefits website. Get 2021 Health Coverage. 2021. Available at HealthCare.gov.